Digital Tools Glossary

Digital Tools Glossary

Most specialist terms are explained the first time they occur, but here are a few which are only mentioned in passing:

Browse the glossary using this index

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string a data type in Python, entered in quotation marks and treated as a literal string; for example the string 21 cannot be divided by 2, whereas the integer 21 can be



Tag part of an element, bounded by angle brackets, eg <h1>

Text file

Text file  a file that can be read by any text editor, usually having the file extension .txt


tuple a sequence of any number of values (the name is formed from the suffix of words like  quintuple). In Python, once a tuple has been created it cannot be changed



Unicode a standard for encoding characters in the world’s writing systems



Valid and XML document is valid if it follows the rules specified by the rules file to which it is linked; additionally a document must be well formed in order to be valid.


variable a name for a value; for example if in Python  myage = 21 assigns the value 21 to the variable myage


Web scraping

Web scraping automated collection of content from web pages


Well-formed conforming to the structural rules of XML, i.e. properly nested elements, matching case for elements, and quoted attribute values



XML (Extensible Stylesheet Language) a markup language which gives great flexibility to its users in defining content and structure

XML declaration

XML declaration a processing instruction that goes at the top of an XML file; the most minimal form is  <?xml version="1.0"?>

XML Schema

XML Schema a schema language: an expression of  the rules for a particular XML document, written in XML itself, and following the syntax specified by the W3C

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